Although Darwin's Origin of Species book contained only a single illustration, some of his other books contained many more. In those days photography was not an option and so naturalists were, almost by necessity, fairly competent artists.
Those that were interested in the landscape were often quite talented artists, trying to capture scenes with great accuracy and attention to detail, especially in color and light.
The first depictions of the Arctic and Antarctic were made by explorers with some artistic training. You can view an online gallery of some of them here and an interactive slideshow here.
The Ice Dwellers Watching the Invaders (around 1875) by William Bradford.